# PHPS40460 Biostatistics II

This module will build on the module PHPS40190 'Biostatistics 1', concentrating on more advanced techniques employed in the analysis of epidemiological and medical research. The control of confounding using stratified and regression modelling is described in detail and the distinction between effect modifiers and confounders in an analysis is explained. Linear and logistic regression techniques, including the use of dummy variables and modelling interaction effects, is described. Students will be introduced to the analysis of paired or clustered and repeated-measures data, including two-way ANOVA, repeated-measures ANOVA and the concept of a random effects. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of survival (or mortality) in a cohort study, covering such techniques as multiple logistic regression, the Kaplan-Meier lifetable and Cox regression.

Emphasis throughout is placed on the understanding of computer output and on the interpretation of complex results. The module is built around the computer package SPSS and gives the student a comprehensive and hands-on knowledge of how to perform multiple, logistic or Cox regression, as appropriate, and other advanced techniques using this package.

Prior to attending this module students should have a basic knowledge of the use of SPSS (entering data, defining data properties etc.). Ideally students will bring their own laptops to lectures.

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Curricular information is subject to change

Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this module students will be able to:

- Appreciate the usefulness and limitations of statistical modelling approaches to data analysis;
- Be able to choose an appropriate model in a given analysis situation;
- Understand how and why advanced techniques are used in statistical analysis, and the importance of confounder control and effect modification detection;
- Use SPSS for regression modelling of their data;
- Interpret computer output from multiple, repeated-measures, logistic or Cox regression in SPSS or other computer packages;
- Critically evaluate the 'statistical methods' section of a scientific publication.

Indicative Module Content:

- Linear regression
- Correlation
- Logs and exponentials (revision)
- Logistic regression
- Confounding
- Interaction / effect modification
- Time-to event analyses - life tables and Kaplan-Meier curves
- Cox Proportional Hazards Regression
- Paired and longitudinal analyses with ANOVA

Student Effort Hours:
Student Effort Type Hours
Specified Learning Activities

20

Autonomous Student Learning

80

Lectures

20

Tutorial

4

Total

124

Approaches to Teaching and Learning:
The two-hour classes are a mix of lecture giving the rationale, theory and practical guide to each statistical method or approach, interspersed with active learning micro-sessions, where the students perform guided tasks on their own laptops using the statistical software package - IBM SPSS. After each exercise, the students are taken through the answers, the output to assist them in interpreting it, and developing skills in the reporting and critical analysis of statistical results. Some sessions consist predominantly of exercises of this sort, revising the skills acquired throughout the semester.
Requirements, Exclusions and Recommendations
Learning Requirements:

Students should have completed the modules PHPS40010: Fundamentals of Epidemiology, and PHPS40190: Biostatistics 1 or equivalent.
Prior to attending this module students should also have a basic knowledge of the use of SPSS (entering data, defining data properties etc.). Ideally students will bring their own laptops to lectures.

Module Requisites and Incompatibles
Not applicable to this module.

Assessment Strategy
Description Timing Open Book Exam Component Scale Must Pass Component % of Final Grade
Assignment: Practical assignment Varies over the Trimester n/a Standard conversion grade scale 40% No

20

Examination: Written examination 2 hour End of Trimester Exam No Standard conversion grade scale 40% No

80

Carry forward of passed components
No

Resit In Terminal Exam
Summer Yes - 2 Hour
Feedback Strategy/Strategies

• Feedback individually to students, post-assessment
• Group/class feedback, post-assessment

How will my Feedback be Delivered?

The assignment is given individualised feedback. There is also general in-class feedback on performance and common areas of weakness and strength.

Name Role
Dr Ricardo Piper Segurado Lecturer / Co-Lecturer
Timetabling information is displayed only for guidance purposes, relates to the current Academic Year only and is subject to change.

Spring

Lecture Offering 1 Week(s) - 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 Thurs 14:00 - 15:50