ARCT30030 History & Theory of the Designed Environment IV - Architecture, Urban and Landscape

Academic Year 2021/2022

This is an advanced course that sets out to investigate the complexity of the designed environment in order to build a common knowledge base for future architects, designers, landscape architects, planners and others involved in the procurement and management of the designed physical environment. Although the course assumes an outline knowledge of the history of architecture, cities and landscapes, additional readings would allow others to benefit from the course.

The course investigates the forces and ideas that have shaped, material culture, architecture, the city, and the landscape and gardens from antiquity to the present. Particular emphasis is placed on the interaction and inter-dependencies of the range of different scales, from the architectural space of the interior through to the wider landscape.

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Curricular information is subject to change

Learning Outcomes:

On completion of this module students should be able to:
*Explain and explore the interrelated architectural and landscape history of the country and the city, the villa and the town, the landed estate, the garden and the plantation as they developed in Europe and the New World from 1600 to the present day.
*Use key case studies to discuss and illustrate this history.
*Write a fully-referenced academic essay of 2000 words with illustrations drawn from the course reading list and lectures (2500 words if no illustrations are used).
* Draw critical comparisons with current and past practice in designing the built and landscape environment.

Indicative Module Content:

1. The Georgian Square and the Georgian House 1714-1837
2. The Georgian City and the Georgian Suburb 1714-1837
3. The Villa; The Form and Ideology of Country Houses
4. The Landscape of Plantation in the US
5. Villa Landscape in Ireland
6. The Town and the Village in Ireland
7. The Cabin and the Cottage in Irish/US Historiography
8. Nineteenth-century Suburbia
9. The Institutional Landscapes of Nineteenth-century Ireland
10. Movement, Image and the Modern city
11.20C modernism in Ireland
12. The Modernist Villa and Landscape

Student Effort Hours: 
Student Effort Type Hours




Autonomous Student Learning




Approaches to Teaching and Learning:
This is a lecture based module that aims to introduce students to the foremost architectural and landscape historians working in the field today. The key teaching approach is lecture-based and drawn from a prescribed reading list that also aims to incorporate active research into taught content. Approximately 30% of the lectures translate current APEP research and prizewinning publications directly into taught content.
The essay component asks the student to reflect on some selected core readings from a defined historical period and to develop an argument relating to the question posed. Both the essay and the final exam assess the student's absorption of the historical methods, thematic concerns and wider cultural and aesthetic histories of the subjects covered in the lecture series. Creative thinking and a subtle/nuanced understanding of history are developed through close engagement with the reading list and simultaneous lecture attendance. 
Requirements, Exclusions and Recommendations

Not applicable to this module.

Module Requisites and Incompatibles
Not applicable to this module.
Assessment Strategy  
Description Timing Open Book Exam Component Scale Must Pass Component % of Final Grade
Essay: 2000 word illustrated and fully-referenced essay on a villa landscape selected by the student. Week 5 n/a Graded No


Essay: A 2,500 illustrated and fully-referenced essay responding to a question selected from a list of questions. These will be drawn from the module's topics and will be provided in week 7. Week 12 n/a Graded Yes


Carry forward of passed components
Resit In Terminal Exam
Spring No
Please see Student Jargon Buster for more information about remediation types and timing. 
Feedback Strategy/Strategies

• Feedback individually to students, post-assessment
• Group/class feedback, post-assessment
• Online automated feedback

How will my Feedback be Delivered?

Feedback on the essay (30%) component of the module will initially be provided as online automated feedback. Class feedback will be provided in week 10. Feedback will be provided individually to students post-assessment if it is sought.

ARCT 30300 Reading List Autumn Trimester 2021-2022
The Country and the City; The Villa and the Town
Reading List 10.9.2021 Professor Finola O'Kane Crimmins
The reading list is subject to change.

1. The Georgian Square, the Georgian Estate and the Georgian City
Finola O'Kane,'"Bargains in View"; The Fitzwilliam Family's Development of Merrion Square, Dublin' in Christine Casey, (editor), The Dublin Townhouse (Dublin, Four Courts Press, February 2010), pps.98-110
Mc Kellar, Elizabeth. The Birth of Modern London. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999, pps. 188 – 214.
Christine Casey, (editor), The Dublin Townhouse, Dublin, (Four Courts Press), 2010, pps. 14-59
McCullough, Niall, Dublin An Urban History, Dublin, 2007, pps. 29-70

2. Georgian Suburbia
Finola O'Kane, 'Spatial Subversion in Eighteenth-Century Dublin; The Suburban Design Practices of the Fitzwilliam Estate', Built Environment, 2015, 41 (4): 463-476
Finola O'Kane, 'Dublin's Fitzwilliam estate; A Hidden Landscape of Discovery, Catholic Agency and Egalitarian Suburban Space' in Eighteenth-Century Ireland / Iris an dá chultúr, Vol. 31 (2016), pp. 94-118 (25 pages)
Elizabeth McKellar, Landscapes of London: The City, the Country and the Suburbs, 1660-1840, New Haven & London, 2014, Intro & Chapter 1
Finola O'Kane, William Ashford; The Absent Point of View, (Churchill House Press),
Tralee, 2012
Fishman, Robert. Bourgeois Utopias. NY: Basic Books, 1987, pps. 39 – 72.
Thompson, F.M.L. The Rise of Suburbia. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1982, pps. 1 – 26 & 93 - 147

3. The Villa; The Form and Ideology of Country Houses
Ackerman, James S., The Villa, Form and Ideology of Country Houses. London, 1990, pps. 9-34
Cosgrove, D., Social Formation and the Symbolic Landscape. Croom Helm, London, 1984. Introduction
Raymond Williams, The Country and the City, Nottingham, 2011, pps. 1-34, ebook
D.R. Coffin, The Villa in the Life of Renaissance Rome, pp. 69-109 & 241-257

4. Villa Landscape in Ireland
Finola O'Kane, Landscape Design in Eighteenth-century Ireland; Mixing Foreign Trees with the Natives, Cork, 2004, Chapters 1 & 2
O'Kane, F. (2004). 'Design and rule: Women in the Irish countryside 1715-1831'. Eighteenth-Century Ireland, 19, 56-74.
Toby Barnard, Making the Grand Figure; Lives and Possessions in Ireland, 1641-1770, Yale, 2004, pps. 21-79, 152-188
Niall McCullough & Valerie Mulvin, A Lost Tradition, Dublin, 1987, pps. 45-73

5. The Town and Village in Ireland
B.J. Graham and L.J. Proudfoot, Urban Improvement in Provincial Ireland 1700- 1840, Athlone (The Group for the Study of Historic Irish Settlement), 1994, pps. 1-19
K. Whelan, ‘Towns and villages’ in F.H.A. Aalen, K. Whelan and M. Stout (eds), Atlas of the Irish rural landscape, 2nd edn (Cork, 2011), pp. 256–77.
Finola O'Kane, 'A Cabin and not a Cottage - The Architectural Embodiment of the Irish Nation' In B. Migge, & G. Hofter (Eds.), Ireland in the European Eye. Dublin, Ireland: The Royal Irish Academy, 2018, pps. 259-283
Finola O'Kane, Ireland and the Picturesque; Design, Landscape Painting and Tourism in Ireland, 1700-1840 (Yale University Press on behalf of the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art) May 2013, Chapter 4

6. Ireland and the Picturesque
Finola O'Kane 'The Limits of Brown's Landscape' in Garden History
Vol. 44, Supplement 1: 2016, pp. 61-72
Finola O'Kane, Landscape Design in Eighteenth-century Ireland; Mixing Foreign Trees with the Natives, Cork, 2004, Chapter 4
Finola O'Kane, Ireland and the Picturesque; Design, Landscape Painting and Tourism in Ireland, 1700-1840 (Yale University Press on behalf of the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art) May 2013, Chapter 3

7. The Colonial Atlantic I; Caribbean Landscapes
Louis Nelson, Architecture and Empire in Jamaica, Yale 2017, Chapter 1
Finola O'Kane, 'What's in a Name; The Connected Histories of Belfield Dublin 4 and Bellfield, St. Mary's, Jamaica' in Finola O'Kane & Ellen Rowley (eds.), Making Belfield: The Space and Place of UCD, Dublin, 2020: Chapter 7
Finola O'Kane (2018) 'The Irish-Jamaican plantation of Kelly's Pen, St. Dorothy's Parish, Jamaica and the rare 1749 inventory of its slaves, stock and household goods in The Caribbean Quarterly, University of the West Indies (UWI) (Vol. 64).
Higman, B. W., Jamaica Surveyed; Plantation Maps and Plans of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, (Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago: University of West Indies Press, 2001: Intro & Chapter
James Mc Clellan, Colonialism and Science; Saint Domingue in the old Régime, Chicago, 2010: Introduction

8. The Colonial Atlantic II; Landscapes of Plantation in the United States
Peter Martin, The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia; From Jamestown to Jefferson, Princeton, 1991, pps. 100-164
John Michael Vlach, Back of the Big House; The Architecture of Plantation Slavery, Chapel Hill and London, 1993, pps. 1-31, 183-228
Dell Upton, 'White and Black Landscapes in Eighteenth-century Virginia' in Places, 2 (2), 1984,
Daniel Bluestone, “A.J. Davis’s Belmead: Picturesque Aesthetics in the Land of Slavery,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 71 (June 2012): 145-167.

9. Military Landscapes 1798 & 1916
O'Kane, F. (2021). Military Memory Manoeuvers in Dublin's Phoenix Park 1775-1820. In A. Tchikine, & J. D. Davis (Eds.), Military Landscapes (pp. 464 pages). 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved from
O'Kane, F., & Constantine, M. -A. (2021). Strategies of the Picturesque: Romantic-era Tours of Wales and Ireland. In N. Leask, J. Bonehill, & A. Dulau (Eds.), Old Ways and New Roads: Travels in Scotland, c. 1720-1830 (pp. 194-211). Edinburgh, Scotland: Berlinn Press. Retrieved from
Finola O'Kane, (2017) 'City of Dublin', Cork City & Harbour' & 'The Military Roads of County Wicklow' in Picturing Places, free educational resource site, The British Library:;
O'Kane, F. (2000). Nurturing a Revolution: Patrick Pearse's School Garden at St Enda's. Garden History, 28(1), 73. doi:10.2307/1587120

O'Kane, F. (2007). Educating a Sapling Nation: The Irish Nationalist Arboretum. Garden History, Journal of the Garden History Society, 35(2), 185-195. doi:10.2307/1587120

O'Kane, F. (2008). The Irish botanical garden: For Ireland or for Empire?. Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes, 28(3-4), 446-455. doi:10.1080/14601176.2008.10404731

10. Strains Constructing the View: the photographic view of architecture - before, during and after
Hugh Campbell – Construction Performance, how the camera captures progress on site (forthcoming 2019, pdf)
The Grey of the Sky: Luxigon’s Eric de Broche des Combes in conversation with Lutz Robbers, Candide 9 (pdf)
Degen, M., Melhuish, C. and Rose, G. (2017), ‘Producing place atmospheres digitally: Architecture, digital visualisation practices and the experience economy’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 17:1. First Published 27 February 2015.
Koeck, R. (2013), Cine-Scapes: Cinematic Spaces in Architecture and Cities, New York: Routledge.
Hallam, J., Koeck, R., Kronenburg, R. and Roberts, L. (eds) (2008), Cities in Film: Architecture, Urban Space and the Moving Image, Liverpool: Liverpool School of Architecture.
Neumann, D. (1995), Film Architecture: Set Designs from ‘Metropolis’ to ‘Blade Runner’, Munich: Prestel.

11. Strains of modernism: Irish architecture in the twentieth century I
Boyd, Gary (ed.), InfraEireann: Infrastructures and the Architectures of Modernity in Ireland 1916 - 2016 (Ashgate, 2015)
Campbell, Hugh, “Modern Architecture and National Identity in Ireland” in Joe Cleary and Claire Connolly (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Modern Irish Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Larmour, Paul, Free State Architecture. Modern Movement Architecture in Ireland, 1922 – 1949 (Kinsale: Gandon Editions, Ideas on Art + Architecture Series, 4, 2009)
Loeber, Rolf, Hugh Campbell, Livia Hurley, John Montague and Ellen Rowley (eds.), Architecture 1600 – 2000, volume IV, Art and Architecture of Ireland (RIA, Yale University Press, 2014): see essays on Modernism, Concrete, Office Buildings, Factories, Flat Blocks, Housing Estates, Town Planning, Developers/Builders, Cinemas, Theatres, The Handball Alley, Competitions, Catholic Churches, Slum Clearance.

12. Strains of modernism: Irish architecture in the twentieth century I
Rothery, Sean, Ireland and the New Architecture 1900 – 1940 (Dublin: Lilliput, 1991)
Rowley, Ellen, ‘The Architect, the Bishop and the Planner. The Shapers of Ordinary Dublin’ in FOOTPRINT international journal, Delft, Issue 17, 2015
Rowley, Ellen, ‘“From Dublin to Chicago and Back Again: The Influence of Americanised Modernism on Dublin Architecture 1940 – 1980” in Linda King and Elaine Sisson (eds.), Ireland, Design and Visual Culture: Negotiating Modernity 1922-1992 (Cork: Cork University Press, 2011)
Rowley, Ellen, “The Conditions of Twentieth Century Irish Architecture” in Christina Kennedy (ed.), The Moderns: The Arts in Ireland from the 1900s to the 1970s (Dublin: Irish Museum of Modern Art, 2011)
Name Role
Professor Hugh Campbell Lecturer / Co-Lecturer
Dr Ellen Rowley Lecturer / Co-Lecturer
Timetabling information is displayed only for guidance purposes, relates to the current Academic Year only and is subject to change.
Lecture Offering 1 Week(s) - Autumn: All Weeks Tues 11:00 - 12:50